Extrusion Simulation

QForm Extrusion integrates all the features required for analysis and optimization of the most complicated extrusion processes. It is used for simulation of solid, semi-hollow and hollow profiles as well as extrusion through multi-hole dies. The extruded material can be aluminum alloys, magnesium, brass, steel and other metals.


Industry wide benchmark testing has shown that QForm Extrusion has the fastest simulation speed of even the most complicated profiles (ICEB 2015).  It takes into account the influence of die set deflection on the material flow. It utilizes a combined Lagrange-Euler approach as well as thermally and mechanically coupled simulations of the die set and material flow together. Special friction models and algorithms for finite element mesh generation have been adapted specifically for extrusion process simulation.

QForm simulates extrusion of thin-walled profiles and shows how the deformed die orifice can change the final dimensions of the extruded profile. Unique coupled simulation of thermal and mechanical tasks takes into account the influence of die set deflection and thermal transfer on the material flow and accurately calculates the resulting angles of choke and relief on bearings as well as how the material flow is affected.

Extrusion1-Velocity Z
Simulated tip of multi core extrusion with significant die deflection
Picture of actual tip of multi core extrusion with significant die deflection

QForm accurately predicts the location of longitudinal seam welds and estimates the length of transversal seam welds

Extrusion2 seam welds
Different colors of show material that came from different feeding channels. The seam welds are located where the colors meet.

Extrusion issues that QForm can detect:

  • Optimization of bearings heights, choke, and relief based on the velocity of extruded material
  • Tip shape optimization
  • Calculation of dimensions and angles (choke and relief) on bearings caused by die deflection
  • Prediction of over-cooled and over-heated areas of the extruded profile
  • Prediction of surface defects on the profile
  • Press selection and optimization of extrusion velocity for optimal productivity
  • Prediction of longitudinal seam welds and transvers seams (billet to billet)
  • Calculation of upsetting and die filling time
  • Calculation of thermal stresses in extruded profile for estimation of warping

New Features In QForm Extrusion (version 8.2.3):

The new version of QForm Extrusion has new features, additional specialized models and options and many existing features have also been improved. For better comprehension the new information is divided into two groups, i.e.specific features that are intended for simulation of profile extrusion processes and general modifications and improvements including new interface features.
I. Profile extrusion simulation module improvements
1. The extrusion module has been significantly extended and improved to increase accuracy and extend facilities for analysis of the results.
2. Improved import of geometry files from CAD systems that have some specific
peculiarities such as NX and Solid Edge.
3. Improved algorithms of coupled simulation of material flow and die set deformation
in case of large die displacement.
4. QForm now uses a more advanced remeshing method when simulating coupled deformation.
5. A new and more precise algorithm is used for solving coupled temperature problem in dies and extruded material.
6. Some specific extrusion process parameters have been added to the Simulation state
tab, i.e. extrusion ratio, die filling time and extrusion load.

7. A new field has been added that shows velocity deviation from the average velocity that allows quick identification of flow issues.

Flow Deviation
Velocity Deviation from Average
8. A “Distance from stop mark” field has been added.
9. The fields “Material streams borders” and “Material streams” have been added.
10. The “Plastic strain in profile” field has been changed to just “Plastic strain” field and it is  now available for the entire material flow domain (not just for the profile).
11. Tool simulation results are now displayed after the very first iteration, i.e. before
coupling with the material flow has been added, for better understanding of the die set
behavior under the loading.
12. Flow stress data for all aluminium alloys used for extrusion simulation have been
verified and updated.
13. Ram displacement has been added to the graphs.
14. Several important diagnostic messages have been added.
15. New hyperbolic sine expression has been added for the flow stress of deformed material.
II. General features, options and improvements
1. For better visualization of the simulation results we added the ability to export in
vrml-file format for colored 3D printing.
2. For better control of a computer performance the priority of QForm Solver is now set to “Normal” by default allowing other programs to run on the same computer more effectively. It is also possible for the user to set the number of logical processors to be used for a particular simulation.
3.“Process templates” have been added for even faster setup of similar simulations.
4. The screen image with picture of the simulation results and legend can be copied to the clipboard with one click. The same can be done for any graph.
5. The user can set the resolution of a still picture or video clip to be recorded and saved.
6. The left side control panel tabs can be switched to compact view to make more screen
space for other information.
7. Velocity vectors are now colored for easier analysis while a workpiece body is
not hidden and the vectors are also shown on the surface.
8. The batch mode has new options, i.e. starting simulation from the selected operation,
starting from the beginning of the list, recalculating scheduled tasks again.
9. In the license control window, the QExDD license duration is displayed among the other QForm features.
10. Programming has become even easier because the LUA code can be now debugged
directly in QForm when running user defined subroutines.
11. Directions of main stress components are now displayed in the standard subroutines called Stress tensor.
Die Design:

QForm Extrusion has a built in bearing editor that allows for rapid modification of bearing lengths and angles. You can quickly experiment with bearing design to see how it affects the material speed and the shape of the extrusion. We can also supply our specialized extrusion die-set designing CAD system QForm Extrusion Die Designer (QExDD)

Extrusion die created with QForm Extrusion Die Designer (QExDD). Notice the bearing is represented parametrically so it is fully editable.

The program is fast and reliable. It works on a 64-bit Windows platform and takes advantage of parallel computing on PCs and can utilize as many cores or logical processors as are available. Simulations can be run in parallel or a series of simulations can be run overnight or over weekends using the built-in batch mode.


  • Prediction of defects in profile during design phase before production
  • Die-set design optimization for profiles with highly complicated shapes
  • Quicker die set development and technology implementation
  • Convenient interface for optimization of bearings which allows users to quickly and easily make correction of bearings based on the velocity distribution of extruded material in the simulation
  • Prediction of temperature distribution along the profile as it exits the die to estimate over-cooled and over-heated areas of the extruded profile
  • Prediction of surface defects on the profile
  • Press selection and optimization of extrusion velocity for optimal productivity
  • Direct interface with specialized extrusion die-set designing CAD system QForm Extrusion Die Designer (QExDD)