Processes Simulated by QForm

Hot / Warm closed die forgingOpen die forging / coggingFasteners / HeadingCold forgingExtrusionReducer RollingCross Wedge RollingRing RollingTrimming /Piercing /ShearingElectric UpsettingPowder FormingHydroformingHeatingMicrostructureHeat TreatingDie / Tool Simulation
Static and dynamic recrystallization in a rolling operation
fig. 1Displacement Uz along the blade surface Uz.
Total variation within 2 mm (from -0.8 mm to +1.3 mm)
fig. 2Shape distortion (pink shape, magnified)
fig. 3Residual stress in cross section of the blade


QForm's Micro Structural Module allows the prediction of grain size and the fraction of recrystallized grains in forged superalloys. It works even when the billet is subject to many blows with short pauses between them such as in hammer forging. The process chain may also include several re-heats.

QForm’s microstructure module is based on Sellars model and simulates:

The MicroStructure module is available as an add on module to QForm3D/2D.

Grain size refinement in open die forging of square billet

Grain size before upsetting

Grain size after upsetting

In the pictures above, you can see the average grain size on the surface and in the cross sections of the upset billet. Grain size varies from 100 to 20 microns. In red zones the grain size has not changed due to insufficient deformation.

Different ways to display the microstructural parameters in QForm

Variation of the grain size after deformation and cooling of the forged part made of Inconel 718

Only one layer of the points is displayed The grain size in microns is displayed in track points concurrently with the field over the surface