Problems solved by QForm

Die Filling / Under FillLapsFlow Through DefectsGrain FlowInstabilityTemperatureLoadVentingBillet PositioningDie StressDie WearDie Deflection
fig.1instability results in a collapsed forging
fig.1Notice the many laps that form as the upset collapses

Instability

Instability occurs when the unsupported upset ratio exceeds the approximate 3:1 ratio (length:diameter) and the unsupported billet collapses.

In full 3D simulations, QForm will show instability accurately. 2D simulations and 3D simulations with symmetry can not show instability because they are locked onto the central axis.