Processes Simulated by QForm

Hot / Warm closed die forgingOpen die forging / coggingFasteners / HeadingCold forgingExtrusionReducer RollingCross Wedge RollingRing RollingTrimming /Piercing /ShearingElectric UpsettingPowder FormingHydroformingHeatingMicrostructureHeat TreatingDie / Tool Simulation
Electrical upsetting example

Electric Upsetting

QForm can simulate electric upsetting with variable electrical current and pushing pressure. It can simulate the heating by resistance and the deformation by hydraulic pressure.

Electric upsetting is a means of preforming bar stock to create an enlarged diameter on a bar, which can then be forged with no further heating. It has applications to the production of parts that are conventionally produced by closed die forging in presses or hammers, and also the production of parts that are conventionally produced in mechanical upsetting machines.

The cold bar stock is placed in the upsetter and clamped by the gripper jaws. A low-voltage, high-amperage, electric current is passed through the bar between the anvil and the gripper jaws. As the bar between the contacts heats (by resistance) and becomes plastic, the axial force applied by the hydraulic cylinder compresses the bar and enlarges it at the hot end, creating a ball against the anvil. As the ball becomes larger, the anvil retracts at a rate less than that of the upsetting cylinder. There is virtually no limit to the amount of material that can be gathered. The current is constantly applied, so the entire ball is at forging temperature, and since the resistance heating begins at the center of the bar, scale is minimized. The shaft of the upset is completely unaltered by the upsetting process.