Cold forging produces highly accurate parts with a surface quality which does not require any extra machining. This causes some restrictions related to higher forming forces and tools durability. The use of QFORM makes it possible to optimize material flow while reducing the force and utilizing the plasticity resource completely. QFORM can utilize composite tools, making it possible to optimize composite pre-stressed dies with hard-alloy inserts and shrink rings.
Fracture caused by accumulated damage
The following example illustrates QForm's ability to track accumulated damage in a cold forged cap made of 1040 steel where a fracture has occurred in the third blow as seen below.
The adaptive damage model was applied to material particles shown as tracked points in the grid.
Tracked points and grid are shown below in the billet and three blows:
The accumulation of damage is calculated in each tracked point
according to the evolution of stress state index and strain.
Stress and strain in a tracked point in the critical zone
The most intensive accumulation of damage factor occurs in the first and third strokes and the critical factor (line1) was exceeded during the third stroke as seen below. This means that irreversible damage factor accumulation caused the fracture in blow three.
See Quantor's technical paper on the optimization of cold forming with simulation
See Quantor's technical paper on increasing tool life in cold forming
See Quantor's technical paper on prediction of cold forming failures